Acute toxicity of penitrem A in dogs
The effect of ip administered penitrem A, a tremorgenic fungal metabolite, on dogs of both sexes and mixed breeding was determined by serum tests, by observation of clinical signs and survival times, and by evaluation of gross and microscopic lesions. Alkaline phosphatase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and creatinine phosphokinase activities increased; survival time varied in relation to dose of mycotoxin administered. Tremors appeared as early as 10 min after dosing and ended in clonic or tetanic convulsions in dogs receiving 0.5 mg/kg or more of penitrem A. Blood uric acid and cholesterol exceeded the normal range. Gross pathologic changes frequently observed were subserosal and submucosal hemorhages in some organs of the thoracic and peritoneal cavities. Dose-related liver damage varied from massive necrosis in dogs receiving 2.5–5.0 mg/kg of penitrem A to no pathologic alterations in dogs given 0.125 mg/kg. Treatment with pentobarbital was successful for penitrem A poisoning if administered within 1–2 hr after exposure to the mycotoxin.
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